The Naked Chef star said the chain, known as Jamie's Italian, would be "affordable and authentic", and would offer a "fast, urban-casual dining experience".
The first Jamies's Italian restaurant will open in Bath in Spring, with others planned for Brighton and Cardiff. Oliver plans to have a chain of 20 within the next five years.
The restaurants will be open for breakfast, lunch and dinner and will compete with chains such as Strada and Carluccio's.
His plan to colonise the high street contrasts with the approach of rival celebrity chefs such as Gordon Ramsay and Marco Pierre White, who have concentrated on establishing exclusive restaurants boasting Michelin stars.
"There are some little places, privately owned by dedicated people, who are doing a good job but they're few and far between. I don't think many of the chains really give consistent quality at a decent price. We aim to change all that," said the Naked Chef.
Oliver said the aim was to create restaurants with a "neighbourhood" feel. The pasta will be made on the premises and the bread will be baked by Oliver's bakery in London.
"There won't be turkey twizzlers on the menu," he added.